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In exchange for giving resource developers the right to produce publicly owned oil and natural gas from federal lands, the Department of the Interior collects various payments and fees, including royalties on the sale value of extracted oil and gas. As oil production on federal lands significantly expanded over the last decade, numerous independent reviews identified longstanding weaknesses in the existing management systems and practices in the Interior Department’s oil and gas programs. These weaknesses make them susceptible to waste, fraud, and abuse.